know·ledge n
1 a: awareness or understanding esp. of an act, a fact, or the truth: actual knowledge (1) in this entry
b: awareness that a fact or circumstance probably exists; broadly: constructive knowledge in this entry see also scienter, willful blindness
◇ Knowledge fundamentally differs from intent in being grounded in awareness rather than purpose.
ac·tu·al knowledge
1: direct and clear awareness (as of a fact or condition)
the bank had actual knowledge that the name and account number referred to different persons
2: awareness of such information as would cause a reasonable person to inquire further; specif: such awareness considered as a timely and sufficient substitute for actual notice (as of a work-related injury or of a bankruptcy proceeding)
ruled that the employer did not have actual notice or actual knowledge within 90 days
con·struc·tive knowledge: knowledge (as of a condition or fact) that one using ordinary care or diligence would possess
had constructive knowledge of the presence of narcotics on his property
per·son·al knowledge: direct knowledge of a matter or of the truth or falsity of an allegation
a witness may not testify to a matter unless evidence is introduced sufficient to support a finding that the witness has personal knowledge of the matterFederal Rules of Evidence Rule 602
su·pe·ri·or knowledge: knowledge greater than that possessed by another; esp: awareness of a condition or fact that affects another who was not aware of it
denied having had superior knowledge of the hazard
superior knowledge of a factor in the performance of a contract
2: the range of one's information, understanding, or expertise
answered to the best of his knowledge

Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of Law. . 1996.

I (awareness) noun acquaintance, apperception, appreciation, appreciativeness, cognition, cognizance, comprehension, consciousness, discernment, enlightenment, familiarity, grasp, information, intellection, intelligence, ken, know-how, mindfulness, perception, perceptiveness, percipience, realization, recognition, understanding associated concepts: actual knowledge, actual notice, common knowledge, constructive knowledge, discovery, full knowledge, guilty knowledge, implied knowledge, imputed knowledge, judicial notice, knowledge sufficient to form a belief, scienter II (learning) noun cognitio, command, doctrina, education, enlightenment, erudition, expertise, familiarity, familiarization, information, ken, know-how, mastery, proficiency, scholarship, scientia, skill, study, wisdom foreign phrases:
- Idem est scire aut scire debet aut potuisse. — To be bound to know or to be able to know is the same as to know.
- Lex neminem cogit ostendere quod nescire praesumitur. — The law compels no one to divulge that which he is presumed not to know
- Sclenti et volenti non fit injuria. — A wrong is not done to a person who understands and consents
- Ignorantia praesumitur ubi scientia non probatur. — Ignorance is presumed where knowledge is not proved
- Ignorantia facti. — Ignorance of facts excuses; ignorance of law does not excuse.
- Scientia utrimque par pares contrahentes facit. — Equal knowledge on both sides makes the contracting parties equal.
III index apprehension (perception), caliber (mental capacity), certainty, certification (certainness), cognition, comprehension, concept, disclosure (something disclosed), discrimination (good judgment), edification, education, experience (background), information (knowledge), intelligence (news), notification, realization, reason (sound judgment), recognition, science (study), scienter, skill, specialty (special aptitude), understanding (comprehension)

Burton's Legal Thesaurus. . 2006

Awareness of or familiarity with something; actual information; awareness of the positive and negative aspects of something.

The Essential Law Dictionary. — Sphinx Publishing, An imprint of Sourcebooks, Inc. . 2008.

n. An awareness of factual information. Includes actual knowledge (positive or definite), personal knowledge (based on one's own observation), and constructive knowledge (based on other circumstances).

Webster's New World Law Dictionary. . 2000.

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