ju·ry /'ju̇r-ē/ n pl ju·ries [Anglo-French juree, from feminine past participle of Old French jurer to swear, from Latin jurare, from jur- jus law]: a body of individuals sworn to give a decision on some matter submitted to them; esp: a body of individuals selected and sworn to inquire into a question of fact and to give their verdict according to the evidence
— occasionally used with a pl. verb
the jury are always to decide whether the inference shall be drawn — Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. see also advisory jury, array, grand jury, inquest, jury nullification, petit jury, special jury, trial jury, venire; amendment vi to the constitution in the back matter
◇ The jury of American and English law most likely originated in early Anglo-Norman property proceedings, where a body of 12 knights or freemen who were from the area, and usu. familiar with the parties, would take an oath and answer questions put to them by a judge in order to determine property rights. Jury verdicts began to be used in felony cases in the early 1200s as the use of the trial by ordeal declined. The questions put to those early juries were usu. questions of fact or mixed questions of fact and law. Modern juries may deal with questions of law in addition to questions of fact when rendering general verdicts, or in specific cases under state law. Federal juries are usu. limited to dealing with questions of fact. The modern jury can vary in size depending on the proceeding but is usu. made up of 6 or 12 members. According to federal law, federal grand and petit juries must be “selected at random from a fair cross-section of the community in the district or division wherein the court convenes.” State jury selection varies and occasionally differs from federal, but the states still must meet constitutional requirements for due process. The U.S. Supreme Court has stated in a series of decisions that a jury is to be composed of “peers and equals,” and that systematic exclusion of a particular class (as on the basis of gender, race, or ancestry) from a jury violates the equal protection clause and the defendant's right to a jury trial. A defendant is not, however, entitled to a jury of any particular composition.

Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of Law. . 1996.

I noun adjudgment body, adjudicators, arbiters, arbitrators, array, assessors, body of jurors, determiners, iudices, judges of the facts, jurymen, panel, reviewers of fact, talesmen, tribunal, triers of fact associated concepts: acquittal by a jury, advisory jury, challenges, charge to the jury, empaneling a jury, fair and impartial jury, foreman of the jury, Grand Jury, hung jury, impartial jury, instructing the jury, invading the province of the jury, Petit Jury, polling a jury, right to trial by jury, Special Grand Jury, swearing of the jury foreign phrases:
- Matter en ley ne serra mise in boutche del jurors. — A matter of law shall not be put into the mouth of jurors
- Paribus sententlis reus absolvitur. — When the opinions are equal, where the court is equally divided, the defendant is acquitted.
- Nemo qui condemnare potest, absolvere non potest. — No one who can convict is unable to acquit
- Patrla laboribus et expensis non debet fatigari. — A jury ought not to be troubled by labors and expenses.
- De jure judices, de facto juratores, respondent. — Judges decide questions of law, jurors, questions of fact
II index panel (jurors)

Burton's Legal Thesaurus. . 2006

A group of people selected and sworn to hear the evidence in a case and decide what the true facts are; usually composed of a cross section of the community. See also grand jury, hung jury, petit jury

The Essential Law Dictionary. — Sphinx Publishing, An imprint of Sourcebooks, Inc. . 2008.

a group of persons (in England and Wales 12, in Scotland 15) selected at random to decide the facts of a case and to deliver the verdict.

Collins dictionary of law. . 2001.

A group of people selected to apply the law, as stated by the judge, to the facts of a case and render a decision, called the verdict. Traditionally, an American jury was made up of 12 people who had to arrive at a unanimous decision. But today, in many states, juries in civil cases may be composed of as few as six members, and nonunanimous verdicts may be permitted. (Almost every state still requires 12-person, unanimous verdicts for criminal trials.) The philosophy behind the jury system is that — especially in a criminal case — an accused's guilt or innocence should be judged by a group of people from the same community ("a jury of peers"), acting impartially and without bias. Recently, some courts have been experimenting with increasing the traditionally rather passive role of the jury by encouraging jurors to take notes and ask questions.
Category: Small Claims Court & Lawsuits

Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary. . 2009.

n. A group of individuals selected and sworn in to serve as the finders of fact in a civil or criminal trial, or in the case of a grand jury, to decide whether the facts warrant an indictment of the defendant.
@ blue-ribbon jury
A jury for which only highly educated individuals have been selected, because they will be dealing with technical subject matter.
@ grand jury
A jury selected and sworn in by a prosecutor to determine whether to issue indictments.
@ petit jury
A jury selected to decide the facts in a trial (effectively, any jury other than a grand jury).
=>> jury.

Webster's New World Law Dictionary. . 2000.

In trials, a group of people who are selected and sworn to inquire into matters of fact and to reach a verdict on the basis of the evidence presented to them.

Dictionary from West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2005.

In trials, a group of people who are selected and sworn to inquire into matters of fact and to reach a verdict on the basis of the evidence presented to them.
II A certain number of men and women selected according to law and sworn to try a question of fact or indict a person for public offense.

Short Dictionary of (mostly American) Legal Terms and Abbreviations.

   one of the remarkable innovations of the English common law (from the Angles and Saxons, but also employed in Normandy prior to the Norman Conquest in 1066), it is a group of citizens called to hear a trial of a criminal prosecution or a lawsuit, decide the factual questions of guilt or innocence or determine the prevailing party (winner) in a lawsuit and the amount to be paid, if any, by the loser. Once selected, the jury is sworn to give an honest and fair decision. The legal questions are determined by the judge presiding at the trial, who explains those issues to the members of the jury (jurors) in "jury instructions." The common number of jurors is 12 (dating back a thousand years), but some states allow a smaller number (six or eight) if the parties agree. For a plaintiff (the party suing) to win a lawsuit with a jury, three-quarters of the jurors must favor the claim. Guilt or innocence in a criminal trial requires a unanimous decision of the jury, except two states (Oregon and Louisiana) allow a conviction with 10 of 12 jurors. Juries have greatly changed in recent decades, as the term "impartial jury" in the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution requires that the pool of jurors must include all races, ethnic groups and women as well as men in percentages relative to the general population. Any failure to achieve that balance or systematic challenges to those of the same ethnicity of the accused, may result in a claim on appeal that the jury was not fair-in popular jargon, not "a jury of one's peers." This does not mean that a Samoan male must be tried by other Samoan males, but it does mean that the potential jurors must come from a balanced group. Members of the jury are supposed to be free of bias, have no specific knowledge of the case and have no connection with any of the parties or witnesses. Questions are asked by the judge and attorneys (called "voir dire") during jury selection to weed out those whom they may challenge on those grounds (challenge for cause). Some potential jurors are challenged (peremptory challenge) because the attorney for one side or the other feels there is some hidden bias. In well-financed cases this has led to the hiring of jury "specialists" and psychologists by attorneys to aid in jury selection. In a high-profile criminal case in which the jury might be influenced by public comment or media coverage during trial, the court may order the jury be sequestered (kept in a hotel away from family, friends, radio, television and newspapers.)

Law dictionary. . 2013.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

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  • jury — jury …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • Jury — Jury …   Deutsch Wörterbuch

  • jury — [ ʒyri ] n. m. • 1790; en parlant de l Angleterre 1588; angl. jury; de l a. fr. jurée « serment, enquête » 1 ♦ Ensemble des jurés inscrits sur les listes départementales annuelles ou sur une liste de session. Groupe de neuf (autrefois douze, puis …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • jury — ju‧ry [ˈdʒʊəri ǁ ˈdʒʊri] noun juries PLURALFORM [countable] LAW a group of ordinary people, often 12 in number, who listen to details of a case in court and decide on it: • The jury has not yet returned its verdict. • The case will go before a… …   Financial and business terms

  • jury — ou juri (ju ri) s. m. 1°   Terme de jurisprudence. Le corps des citoyens qui peuvent être jurés.    L ensemble des jurés désignés pour une session. Je suis du jury pour la première quinzaine de mars.    La réunion des douze jurés auxquels une… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • Jury — Sf Gruppe von Fachleuten, Sachverständigen oder Geschworenen erw. fach. (19. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus ne. jury, dieses aus afrz. juré Versammlung der Geschworenen , zu afrz. jurer schwören, durch Schwur das Recht verstärken , aus l. iūrāre,… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Jury — Ju ry, n.; pl. {Juries}. [OF. jur[ e]e an assize, fr. jurer to swear, L. jurare, jurari; akin to jus, juris, right, law. See {Just},a., and cf. {Jurat}, {Abjure}.] [1913 Webster] 1. (Law) A body of people, selected according to law, impaneled and …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • jury — jury1 [joor′ē] n. pl. juries [ME jure < Anglo Fr juree < OFr, oath, judicial inquest < ML jurata, a jury, properly fem. pp. of L jurare, to take an oath, swear < jus (gen. juris), law < IE * yewos, fixed rule > OIr huisse, just] …   English World dictionary

  • jury- — /joo ri / (nautical) combining form Indicating makeshift ORIGIN: Perh OFr ajurie aid, from L adjūtāre to aid • • • juˈrymast noun A temporary mast raised instead of one lost juˈry rig noun A temporary, makeshift rig juˈry rigged adjective Rigged… …   Useful english dictionary

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