crime /'krīm/ n [Middle French, from Latin crimen fault, accusation, crime]
1: conduct that is prohibited and has a specific punishment (as incarceration or fine) prescribed by public law compare delict, tort
2: an offense against public law usu. excluding a petty violation see also felony, misdemeanor
◇ Crimes in the common-law tradition were originally defined primarily by judicial decision. For the most part, common-law crimes are now codified. There is a general principle “nullum crimen sine lege,” that there can be no crime without a law. A crime generally consists of both conduct, known as the actus reus, and a concurrent state of mind, known as the mens rea.
3: criminal activity

Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of Law. . 1996.

I noun act prohibited by law, breach of law, contravention, corruption, criminal activity, criminal offense, delict, delictum, delinquency, dereliction, deviation from rectitude, encroachment, facinus, felony, flagitiousness, fringement, graft, gross offense against law, guilty act, illegality, indictable offense, infringement, jobbery, maleficium, malfeasance, malversation, misconduct, misdealing, misdeed, misdemeanor, misdoing, misfeasance, misprision, noncompliance with law, nonobservance of law, nonfeasance, obliquity, offence, offense, offense against the law, offense against the state, official misconduct, omission prohibited by law, public wrong, serious infraction of the law, violation of law, wrong associated concepts: accessory to crime, acquittal of crime, antecedent crime, attempted crime, capital crime, commission of a crime, common-law crimes, compounding a crime, concealment of a crime, convicted of a crime, crime against law of nations, crime against nature, crime involving moral turpitude, crime mala in se, crime mala prohibita, crime of violence, crimen falsi, element of the crime, guilt, implement a crime, imprisonment, indictable crime, infamous crime, necessarily included crime, pary to crime, proceeds of crime, prosecution for a crime, punishment for a crime, quasi crime, victim foreign phrases:
- Crescente malitia crescere debet et poena. — Punishment ought to be increased as malice increases
- Aestimatio praeteriti delicti ex postremo facto nunquam cresclt. — The weight of a past crime is never increased by a subsequent fact
- Receditur a placitis furis, potius quam injuriae et delicta maneant impunita. — Settled rules of law will be departed from rather than that crimes should remain unpublished
- Peccata contra naturam sunt gravissima. — Crimes against nature are the most heinous
- Nemo punltur pro alieno delicto. — No one is to be punished for the crime of another
- Ubi culpa est, ibi poena subesse debet. — Where a crime is committed, there punishment should be inflicted
- Impunities semper ad deteriora invitat. — Impunity always invites to greater offenses.
- Melior est fustitia vere praeveniens quam severe puniens. — Truly preventive justice is better than severe punishment
- Multiplicata transgressione crescat poenae inflictio. — The infliction of punishment should be increased in proportion to the repetition of the offense.
- Poena non potest, culpa perennis erit. — Punishment cannot be everlasting, but crime will be
- In atrocioribus delictis punltur affectus licet non sequatur effectus. — In the more atrocious crimes the intent is punished, although an effect does not follow
- Crimen laesae mafestatis omnia alia crimina excedit quoad poenam. — The punishment for treason exceeds that for all other crimes
- Crimen omnia ex se nata vitiat. — Crime vitiates all which springs from it
- Crimina morte extinguuntur. — Crimes are extinguished by death.
- Culpae poena par esto. — Let the punishment fit to the crime
- Venla facilitas incentivum est delinquendi. — Facility of pardon is an incentive to crime
- Voluntas et proposltum dlstlnguunt maleficia. — The will and purpose distinguish offenses.
- Multiplicata transgresslone crescat poenae inflictio. — The infliction of punishment should be increased in proportion to the repetition of the offense
- In criminalibus, voluntas reputabltur pro facto. — In criminal cases, the intent will be taken for the deed
- In maleficils voluntas spectator, non exitus. — In offenses, the intention is regarded, not the result
- In omnibus poenallbus judiciis, et aetati et imprudentiae succurritur. — In all penal judgments, allowance is made for youth and lack of prudence
- In criminalibus, sufficit generalis malitia intentionis, cum facto parts gradus. — In crimes, a general malicious intent suffices where there is an act of equal degree
- Interest reipublicae quod homines conserventur. — It is in the interest of the state that men be preserved
II index bribery, burglary, corruption, delict, delinquency (misconduct), guilt, homicide, infraction, misconduct, misdeed, misdoing, offense, transgression, wrong

Burton's Legal Thesaurus. . 2006

An act that violates criminal law.

The Essential Law Dictionary. — Sphinx Publishing, An imprint of Sourcebooks, Inc. . 2008.

an offence against the state that is punishable. The act or omission may also be civilly actionable. Prevailing legal thinking takes the positivist view (See positivism) that any conduct can be declared criminal, so everything from murder to a failure to renew a television licence can be a crime. Most legal systems require that the accused person should exhibit mens rea ('a guilty mind') as well as having carried out the actus reus, being the physical requirement. Thus, in theft the accused must have taken the thing (although this is interpreted differently in different systems) and have intended to deprive the true owner of his ownership (although this too can be formulated differently in different systems). Motive is generally irrelevant. A crime is sometimes distinguished from delicts and contraventions, especially in the civil law jurisdictions: a crime is a serious crime, a delict a major offence and a contravention a trivial breach of the law. Crimes are also distinguished from offences, the latter being considered more trivial.

Collins dictionary of law. . 2001.

A type of behavior that is has been defined by the state as deserving of punishment, which usually includes imprisonment in the county jail or state or federal prison. Crimes and their punishments are defined by Congress and state legislatures.
Category: Criminal Law
Category: Small Claims Court & Lawsuits

Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary. . 2009.

n. An act or omission that violates the law and is punishable by a sentence of incarceration.
@ anticipatory crime
@ bias crime
=>> crime (hate crime).
@ common-law crime
An offense that was a crime under the common law. Nearly all crimes, including offenses that were common-law crimes, are now defined by statute and are, thus, statutory crimes. Also, most states no longer recognize common-law crimes.
@ computer crime
A crime, such as committing fraud over the Internet, that requires the knowledge or utilization of computer technology. Also called cybercrime.
@ crime against nature
One of the three sexual acts (oral sex and anal sex, whether with a person of the opposite or same sex, and sex with animals) that were considered crimes under the common law and that, in some cases, are currently a statutory crime. Also called unnatural act.
See also bestiality, sodomy.
@ crime of passion
A crime committed in a moment of sudden or extreme anger or other emotional disturbance sufficient enough for a reasonable person to lose control and not reflect on what he or she is doing.
@ crime of violence
@ cybercrime
@ hate crime
A crime motivated mostly by bias, ill will, or hatred toward the victim's actual or perceived race, color, ethnicity, country of national origin, religion, or sexual orientation. Many states impose extra penalties if a crime is committed due to such motivation. Also called bias crime.
See also crime; freedom of speech.
@ high crime
A crime whose commission offends the public's morality.
@ inchoate crime
One of the three crimes (attempt, conspiracy, solicitation) that are steps toward the commission of another crime. Also called anticipatory crime, anticipatory offense, and inchoate offense.
@ infamous crime
1 Under common law, any one of the crimes that were considered particularly dishonorable and the punishment for which included ineligibility to hold public office, to serve on a jury, or to testify at a civil or criminal trial. These crimes included treason, any felony, forgery, and perjury, among other offenses.
2 Any crime punishable by death or by imprisonment of more than one year.
See also crime, punishment.
@ status crime
A crime that is defined by a person's condition or character rather than by any wrongful act that they have done. For example, the "crime" of being an alcoholic as opposed to being intoxicated in public or drinking alcohol while driving a vehicle. The United States Supreme Court has held that to impose a sanction for such crimes violates the ban found in the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution against cruel and unusual punishment.
See also crime, vagrancy.
@ statutory crime
1 An offense that was not a crime under the common law, but has been made a crime by a statute.
2 Broadly, any crime that is defined by a statute.
See also common-law crime
@ victimless crime
A crime, such as drug use, gambling, and a crime against nature, that directly harms no person or property except that of the consenting participants.
@ violent crime
Any crime that has as an element the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against the person or property of another or any felony that entails a substantial risk that physical force will be used against the person or property of another. Also called crime of violence.
@ white-collar crime
Any business or financial non-violent crime, such as bribery, consumer fraud, corruption, embezzlement, and stock manipulation, committed by business executives, professionals, and public officials.
n. A phrase denoting a variety of nonviolent crimes and commercial offenses committed by business people, public officials, and con artists. Consumer fraud, bribery, stock manipulation, and embezzlement are among the improprieties in this category.

Webster's New World Law Dictionary. . 2000.

An act in violation of the penal laws of a state or the United States. A positive or negative act in violation of penal law.

Short Dictionary of (mostly American) Legal Terms and Abbreviations.

   a violation of a law in which there is injury to the public or a member of the public and a term in jail or prison, and/or a fine as possible penalties. There is some sentiment for excluding from the "crime" category crimes without victims, such as consensual acts, or violations in which only the perpetrator is hurt or involved such as personal use of illegal drugs.
   See also: felony, misdemeanor

Law dictionary. . 2013.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу
, , (especially against human law), / , , , , , , (of a violent or high-handed nature)

Look at other dictionaries:

  • crime — [ krim ] n. m. • 1160; lat. crimen « accusation » 1 ♦ Sens large Manquement très grave à la morale, à la loi. ⇒ attentat, 1. délit, faute, 1. forfait , infraction, 3. mal, péché. Crime contre nature. « L intérêt que l on accuse de tous nos crimes …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • crime — W2S2 [kraım] n [Date: 1200 1300; : Latin; Origin: crimen judgment, accusation, crime ] 1.) [U] illegal activities in general ▪ We moved here ten years ago because there was very little crime. ▪ Women commit far less crime than men. ▪ Police… …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • crime — CRIME. s. m. Action meschante & punissable par les loix. Crime capital. grand crime. crime atroce, detestable. crime enorme. crime inoüi, noir, irremissible. commettre, faire un crime. faire un crime à quelqu un de quelque chose, pour dire,… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • crime — CRIME. s. m. Mauvaise action que les lois punissent. Crime capital. Grand crime. Crime atroce, détestable. Crime énorme. Crime inouï, noir, irrémissible. Commettre, faire un crime. Punir un crime. Pardonner un crime. Abolir un crime. L abolition… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • crime — [ kraım ] noun *** 1. ) count an illegal activity or action: commit a crime (=do something illegal): She was unaware that she had committed a crime. the scene of a crime (=where it happened): There were no apparent clues at the scene of the crime …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • crime — [kraɪm] noun LAW 1. [countable] a dishonest or immoral action that can be punished by law: • Insider trading is a crime here and in the U.S. 2. [uncountable] illegal activities in general: • We moved here ten years ago because there was very… …   Financial and business terms

  • Crime — (kr[imac]m), n. [F. crime, fr. L. crimen judicial decision, that which is subjected to such a decision, charge, fault, crime, fr. the root of cernere to decide judicially. See {Certain}.] 1. Any violation of law, either divine or human; an… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Crime — 〈[kraım] m. 6 oder n. 15〉 I 〈zählb.〉 Verbrechen, Gewalttat II 〈unz.; Sammelbez. für〉 Kriminalität; →a. Sex and Crime [engl.] * * * Crime [kra̮im ], das; s [engl. crime < afrz. crime < lat. crimen = Verbrechen]: engl. Bez. für: Verbrechen,… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • crime — Crime, et cas qu on a commis, Crimen. Un crime pour lequel y a peine de mort, ou d infamie, Capitale facinus, vel crimen. Crime de lese majesté, Perduellio. Pour certain crime ou cas, Certo nomine maleficij. Commettre un crime, ou faire une faute …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • crime — mid 13c., sinfulness, from O.Fr. crimne (12c., Mod.Fr. crime), from L. crimen (gen. criminis) charge, indictment, accusation; crime, fault, offense, perhaps from cernere to decide, to sift (see CRISIS (Cf. crisis)). But Klein (citing Brugmann)… …   Etymology dictionary

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